Electromagnetic noise transmitted between leads or circuits in
close proximity to each other.
For crystalline materials, the manner in which atoms or ions are
arrayed in space. It is defined in terms of the unit cell geometry
and the atom positions within the unit cell.
Curie temperature (also Curie point) (Tc)
The temperature above which a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic
material becomes paramagnetic. For iron the Curie point is 760oC
and for nickel 356oC.
Measure of rate of flow of electric charge: a one-ampere current
is a flow of 1 C of charge per second.
Condition in a diode or bipolar junction transistor in which the
potential across a p-n junction prevents current flow.
A type of particle accelerator in which an ion introduced at the
center is accelerated in an expanding spiral path by use of
alternating electrical fields in the presence of a magnetic field.
The Debye length in front of a sensing electrode depends on the
ionic strength of the electrolyte used. In a 0.001N NaCl the Debye
length measures 96.5 Å, while for a 1.0 N solution it is
reduced to 3.0 Å. An adsorbed protein can stick out from the
surface for as much as 50 to 100 Å. As a result, the charges
which could contribute to the surface potential will be shielded
in a 1.0 N solution. To make more sensitive measurements a
solution of low ionic strength should be used.
A term used to describe the deteriorative processes that occur
with polymeric materials, including swelling, dissolution, and
The breaking down of the three-dimensional structure of a protein
resulting in the loss of its function.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A huge nucleotide polymer having a double helical structure with
complementary bases on two strands. Its major functions are
protein synthesis and the storage and transport of genetic