Heat process used to remove stress, crystallize or render
deposited material more uniform.

Anode

The electrode in an electrochemical cell or galvanic couple that
experiences oxidation, or gives up electrons.

Arrhenius equation

The equation representing the rate constant as k = Ae^{Ea/RT}
where A represents the product of the collision frequency and a steric
factor, and e^{Ea/RT} is fraction of collisions with sufficient
energy to produce a reaction.

ASIC

Application-specific integrated circuit; an IC designed for a
custom requirement.

Atomic mass unit (a.m.u.)

A unit of mass used to express relative atomic masses.
It is equal to 1/12 of the mass of an atom of the isotope carbon-12 and
is equal to 1.66033x10^{-27 }kg

Atomic number (also proton number Z)

The number of protons within the atomic nucleus of a chemical element.

Atomic weight

The weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring
element.

Austenite

Face-centered cubic iron; also iron and steel alloys that have the FCC
crystal structure.

Avogadro's number

The number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure ^{12}C, equal to
6.022 × 10^{23}.

Band gap energy (E_{g})

For semiconductors and insulators, the energies that lie between
the valence and conduction bands; for intrinsic materials,
electrons are forbidden to have energies within this range.